Home/William (Red) L. Whittaker

William (Red) L. Whittaker

University Professor
Email: ww0t@andrew.cmu.edu
Office: NSH 2109
Phone: 412-268-6559
Personal Homepage

My research interests center on mobile robots in unpredictable environments, such as natural terrain and outdoor worksites, including computer architectures to control mobile robots, modeling and planning for non-repetitive tasks, complex problems of objective sensing in random or dynamic environments, and integrations of complete field robot systems.

Remote Reconnaissance & InspectionThe first machines that initiated “field robotics” (1982) addressed a need to remotely inspect the aftermath of a nuclear accident at Three Mile Island. The Remote Reconnaissance Vehicle brought back the first footage from the flooded basement of the damaged reactor. The Remote Core Sampler returned samples of the walls and the Remote Work Vehicle was built to do a large number of tasks inside the basement. Pioneer (1998), a mobile mapping and reconnaissance machine for structural assessment was deployed at the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Tesselator (1992) was developed for automated inspection and waterproofing of the tiles on the Space Shuttle. Tugbot (2006) surveyed an 1800-acre site in Nevada for hazards and buried objects.

My work encompasses core research, prototyping, and experimentation with the view that all are important to the evolution of field robots. Increasingly, my research interests are manifested through the work of the Field Robotics Center (FRC), which I direct. I have particular agenda in integrating component technologies into complete systems that prove themselves in both research and real world contexts. At FRC we developed the remote work systems that explored and remediated the basement of the crippled Three Mile Island reactor containment basement. The Remote Reconnaissance Vehicle performed recovery tasks such as inspection, radiological mapping, material sampling, sludge transport and wall cleaning in a highly radioactive environment. Its successor, the Remote Work Vehicle (RWV), a telerobot of unprecedented capability and nuclear qualification, was developed for a broad agenda of clean-up operations. The RWV can wash contaminated surfaces, remove sediments, demolish radiation sources, apply surface treatments, and package and transport materials.

Outdoor NavigationTerregator (1983) was one of the earliest outdoor mobile robots and served as a testbed for much of the early work in autonomous road following and mine modeling. Its successor, Navlab (1985), a converted van, was the first full sized vehicle to house researchers and computing and served as a testbed for unmanned ground vehicle research. Navlab founded a series of autonomous outdoor vehicles with a variety of configurations.

The FastNav project investigated the areas of path tracking and collision avoidance for robot vehicles in featureless terrains, such as strip mines and hazardous waste sites. Collision avoidance was accomplished by searching a section of the path ahead of the vehicle using laser ranging. To guarantee collision avoidance, it is necessary to guarantee detection by the sensor and real time response from the computing and vehicle actuators. Path tracking was accomplished by servoing to a specified path using sophisticated inertial guidance. To date we have successfully demonstrated path tracking on the NavLab at 25 km per hour using a kinematic model of the vehicle. In the future we plan to extend our control schemes to track paths at higher speeds by incorporating vehicle dynamics and to detect obstacles on undulating terrain.

From sensor research in subsurface investigation, we developed the Portable Pipe Mapper (PPM), a hand-held pipe mapping system that collects, enhances, and displays a gray-scale map of buried ferrous pipes. The PPM gives the user a powerful tool for inferring utility line location through a visual and spatial representation of sensor data. It displays elbows, Ts, and crosses in piping networks and provides an accurate depth estimation of a target pipe.

We are developing a Site Investigation Robot to increase the efficiency of hazardous waste site investigations by integrating automated data acquisition, advanced subsurface sensing, robotic positioning, and site data basing through a uniform user-friendly interface. We have automated ground penetrating radar (GPR) scanning and data acquisition, using robotic technology to provide high accuracy for signal processing. Our work in three-dimensional image processing matches the three dimensional potential of GPR, achieving higher resolutions and full-volume imaging. Ultimately, a field technician will be able to scan a site and determine the type and locations of objects for excavation.

Our research into the automation of subsurface mining machines, specifically in the area of navigation, motion safe-guarding and position registration, has demonstrated corridor following using our Terregator equipped with sonar and laser range sensors. Current research is supported by the Locomotion Emulator (LE), an omnidirectional locomotion testbed. The LE’s distinction as a testbed lies in its ability to emulate a wide variety of target vehicles, of which mining machines are examples, through software reconfiguration. The success of the LE is measured in part by the extent to which software for a target application, developed on the LE, ports to end use with minimum modification.

Robotic ExplorationAmbler (1987), a novel walking robot intended for a Mars sample-return mission, was built to navigate over large obstacles while operating on very low power. Skyworker (2002), is a similarly motivated robot that walks on the trusses of space structures. Dante I & II (1992, 1994) were unmanned robots for volcano exploration deployed at Mt. Erebus, Antarctica and Mt. Spurr, Alaska. Nomad (1996) is a novel robot mechanism designed to operate in rough terrain. It was first extensively deployed in the Chilean Atacama Desert in 1997 and was subsequently used for the first robotic search for Antarctic meteorites (2000). A branch from this line of work developed Hyperion (2001) and Zoe (2005), solar-powered robots for extended deployment in the arctic tundra and the Atacama Desert. The latest development is a lander/rover combination intended to address the Google X Prize for the first commercially funded venture to put a robot on the moon.

 

Publications

Displaying 114 Publications
Finding Routes for Efficient and Successful Slope Ascent for Exploration Rovers
Hiroaki Inotsume, Colin Creager, David Wettergreen and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, The International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space (i-SAIRAS) 2016, June, 2016
Multiobjective Waypoint Sequencing for Planetary Rovers with Time-Dependent Energy Constraints
Christopher Cunningham, Jonathan Joo, Heather Jones and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, The International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space (i-SAIRAS), June, 2016
Energy Utilization and Energetic Estimation of Achievable Range for Wheeled Mobile Robots Operating on a Single Battery Discharge
Xuesu Xiao and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-14-15, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, June, 2015
Terrain Traversability Prediction by Imaging Thermal Transients
Christopher Cunningham, Issa Nesnas and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May, 2015
Energy Considerations for Wheeled Mobile Robots Operating on a Single Battery Discharge
Xuesu Xiao and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-14-16, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, August, 2014
Time-Dependent Planning for Resource Prospecting
Christopher Cunningham, Heather Jones, Jacqueline Kay, Kevin M. Peterson and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, The International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space (i-SAIRAS), June, 2014
Mapping Planetary Caves with an Autonomous, Heterogeneous Robot Team
Ammar Husain, Heather Jones, Balajee Kannan, Uland Wong, Tiago Pimentel, Sarah Tang, Shreyansh Daftry, Steven Huber and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, 2013 IEEE Aerospace Conference, March, 2013
Position Estimation by Registration to Planetary Terrain
Aashish Sheshadri, Kevin Peterson, Heather Jones and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Information Integration (MFI), September, 2012
Complementary Flyover and Rover Sensing for Superior Modeling of Planetary Features
Heather Jones, Uland Wong, Kevin Peterson, Jason Koenig, Aashish Sheshadri and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, July, 2012
Advantageous bucket-wheel configuration for lightweight planetary excavators
Krzysztof Skonieczny, Scott Jared Moreland, David Wettergreen and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, September, 2011
A Long-Duration Propulsive Lunar Landing Testbed
Krishna Shankar, Kevin Peterson, Heather Jones, Justin Moidel and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation, May, 2011
Enabling Long-Duration Lunar Equatorial Operations With Thermal Wadi Infrastructure
Heather Jones, John P. Thornton, Ramaswamy Balasubramaniam, Suleyman A. Gokoglu, Kurt R. Sacksteder and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Miscellaneous, Carnegie Mellon University, 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January, 2011
Parameters governing regolith site work by small robots
Krzysztof Skonieczny, David Wettergreen and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, ASCE Earth & Space 2010, March, 2010
Autonomous Driving in Traffic: Boss and the Urban Challenge
Christopher Urmson, Christopher R. Baker, John M. Dolan, Paul Rybski, Bryan Salesky, William (Red) L. Whittaker, David Ferguson and Michael Darms

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, AI Magazine, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 17-29, June, 2009
Configuring innovative regolith moving techniques for lunar outposts
Krzysztof Skonieczny, Matthew E. DiGioia, Raymond L Barsa, David Wettergreen and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, IEEE Aerospace, March, 2009
Design and Experimentation of a Rover Concept for Lunar Crater Resource Survey
David Wettergreen, Dominic Jonak, David Kohanbash, Scott Jared Moreland, Spencer Spiker, James Teza and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including The New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, January, 2009
Autonomous driving in urban environments: Boss and the Urban Challenge
Christopher Urmson, Joshua Anhalt, Hong Bae, J. Andrew (Drew) Bagnell, Christopher R. Baker, Robert E. Bittner, Thomas Brown, M. N. Clark, Michael Darms, Daniel Demitrish, John M. Dolan, David Duggins, David Ferguson, Tugrul Galatali, Christopher M. Geyer, Michele Gittleman, Sam Harbaugh, Martial Hebert, Thomas Howard, Sascha Kolski, Maxim Likhachev, Bakhtiar Litkouhi, Alonzo Kelly, Matthew McNaughton, Nick Miller, Jim Nickolaou, Kevin Peterson, Brian Pilnick, Raj Rajkumar, Paul Rybski, Varsha Sadekar, Bryan Salesky, Young-Woo Seo, Sanjiv Singh, Jarrod M. Snider, Joshua C. Struble, Anthony (Tony) Stentz, Michael Taylor, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Ziv Wolkowicki, Wende Zhang and Jason Ziglar

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue on the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge, Part I, Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 425-466, June, 2008
Self-Driving Cars and the Urban Challenge
Christopher Urmson and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 66-68, April, 2008
Design of the Scarab Rover for Mobility and Drilling in the Lunar Cold Traps
Paul Bartlett, David Wettergreen and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, February, 2008
Plowing for Controlled Steep Crater Descents
Jason Ziglar, David Kohanbash, David Wettergreen and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space (iSAIRAS), February, 2008
Tartan Racing: A Multi-Modal Approach to the DARPA Urban Challenge
Christopher Urmson, Joshua Anhalt, J. Andrew (Drew) Bagnell, Christopher R. Baker, Robert E. Bittner, John M. Dolan, David Duggins, David Ferguson, Tugrul Galatali, Hartmut Geyer, Michele Gittleman, Sam Harbaugh, Martial Hebert, Thomas Howard, Alonzo Kelly, David Kohanbash, Maxim Likhachev, Nick Miller, Kevin Peterson, Raj Rajkumar, Paul Rybski, Bryan Salesky, Sebastian Scherer, Young-Woo Seo, Reid Simmons, Sanjiv Singh, Jarrod M. Snider, Anthony (Tony) Stentz, William (Red) L. Whittaker and Jason Ziglar

Tech. Report, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, DARPA Grand Challenge Tech Report, April, 2007
Technologies Toward Lunar Crater Exploration
Jason Ziglar, David Kohanbash, David Wettergreen and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-07-40, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 2007
A Robust Approach to High-Speed Navigation for Unrehearsed Desert Terrain
Christopher Urmson, Joshua Anhalt, Daniel Bartz, Michael Clark, Tugrul Galatali, Alexander Gutierrez, Sam Harbaugh, Joshua Johnston, Hiroki Kato, Phillip L. Koon, William Messner, Nick Miller, Aaron Mosher, Kevin Peterson, Charlie Ragusa, David Ray, Bryon K. Smith, Jarrod M. Snider, Spencer Spiker, Joshua C. Struble, Jason Ziglar and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, Journal of Field Robotics, Vol. 23, No. 8, pp. 467-508, August, 2006
Recent Developments in Subterranean Robotics
Aaron Christopher Morris, David Ferguson, Zachary Omohundro, David Bradley, David Silver, Christopher R. Baker, Scott Thayer, Chuck Whittaker and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, Journal of Field Robotics, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 35-57, January, 2006
Preplanning for high performance autonomous traverse of desert terrain exploiting a priori knowledge to optimize speeds and to detail paths
Alexander Gutierrez, Tugrul Galatali, Juan Pablo Gonzalez, Christopher Urmson and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-05-54, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 2005
Design and Control of a Passively Steered, Dual Axle Vehicle
Michael D. Wagner, Stuart Heys, David Wettergreen, James Teza, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, George A. Kantor and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, 8th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, September, 2005
First Experiments in the Robotic Investigation of Life in the Atacama Desert of Chile
David Wettergreen, Nathalie Cabrol, James Teza, Paul Tompkins, Christopher Urmson, Vandi Verma, Michael D. Wagner and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, International Conference on Robotics and Automation, April, 2005
Robotic Technologies for Surveying Habitats and Seeking Evidence of Life: Results from the 2004 Field Experiments of the ?ife in the Atacama?Project
David Wettergreen, Nathalie Cabrol, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Guillermo Chong Diaz, Francisco Calderon, Stuart Heys, Dominic Jonak, Rolf Allan Luders, Jeffrey Moersch, David Pane, Marion Smith, Kristen Stubbs, James Teza, Paul Tompkins, Daniel Villa, Chris Williams, Michael D. Wagner, Alan Waggoner, Shmuel Weinstein and Michael Wyatt

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVI, March, 2005
Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods and Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the “Life in the Atacama” Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions
Nathalie A. Cabrol, David Wettergreen, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Edmond A. Grin, Jeffrey Moersch, Guillermo Chong Diaz, Charles Cockell, Peter Coppin, James M. Dohm, Gregory Fisher, Andrew N. Hock, Lucia Marinangeli, Edwin Minkley, G. G. Ori, Jennifer Piatek, Alan Waggoner, Kim Warren-Rhodes, Shmuel Weinstein, Michael Wyatt, Francisco Calderon, Stuart Heys, Dominic Jonak, Rolf Allan Luders, David Pane, Trey Smith, Kristen Stubbs, James Teza, Paul Tompkins, Daniel Villa, Chris Williams, Michael D. Wagner, Geb Thomas and Justin Glasgow

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVI, March, 2005
Spectroscopic Results from the Life in the Atacama (LITA) Project 2004 Field Season
Jennifer L. Piatek, Jeffrey E. Moersch, Michael Wyatt, Michael Rampey, Nathalie A. Cabrol, David Wettergreen, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Edmond A. Grin, Guillermo Chong Diaz, Charles Cockell, Peter Coppin, James M. Dohm, Gregory Fisher, Andrew N. Hock, Lucia Marinangeli, Edwin Minkley, G. G. Ori, Alan Waggoner, Kim Warren-Rhodes, Shmuel Weinstein, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Trey Smith, Michael D. Wagner, Kristen Stubbs, Geb Thomas and Justin Glasgow

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVI, March, 2005
Sun-Synchronous Robotic Exploration: Technical Description and Field Experimentation
David Wettergreen, Paul Tompkins, Christopher Urmson, Michael D. Wagner and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 24, No. 1, January, 2005
Autonomous exploration and mapping of abandoned mines
Sebastian Thrun, Scott Thayer, Chuck Whittaker, Christopher R. Baker, Wolfram Burgard, David Ferguson, Dirk Haehnel, Michael Montemerlo, Aaron Christopher Morris, Zachary Omohundro, Carlos Reverte and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 79-91, December, 2004
High Speed Navigation of Unrehearsed Terrain: Red Team Technology for Grand Challenge 2004
Christopher Urmson, Joshua Anhalt, Michael Clark, Tugrul Galatali, Juan Pablo Gonzalez, Jay Gowdy, Alexander Gutierrez, Sam Harbaugh, Matthew Johnson-Roberson, Hiroki Kato, Phillip L. Koon, Kevin Peterson, Bryon K. Smith, Spencer Spiker, Erick Tryzelaar and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-04-37, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, June, 2004
A Campaign in Autonomous Mine Mapping
Christopher R. Baker, Aaron Christopher Morris, David Ferguson, Scott Thayer, Chuck Whittaker, Zachary Omohundro, Carlos Reverte, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Dirk Haehnel and Sebastian Thrun

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Vol. 2, pp. 2004 - 2009, April, 2004
Field Experiments in Mission-Level Path Execution and Re-Planning
Paul Tompkins, Anthony (Tony) Stentz and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-8), March, 2004
Mission-Level Path Planning for Rover Exploration
Paul Tompkins, Anthony (Tony) Stentz and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-8), March, 2004
A System for Volumetric Robotic Mapping of Abandoned Mines
Sebastian Thrun, Dirk Haehnel, David Ferguson, Michael Montemerlo, Rudolph Triebel, Wolfram Burgard, Christopher R. Baker, Zachary Omohundro, Scott Thayer and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA '03), Vol. 3, pp. 4270 - 4275, May, 2003
An Autonomous Robotic System for Mapping Abandoned Mines
David Ferguson, Aaron Christopher Morris, Dirk Haehnel, Christopher R. Baker, Zachary Omohundro, Carlos Reverte, Scott Thayer, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Chuck Whittaker, Wolfram Burgard and Sebastian Thrun

Conference Paper, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 03), January, 2003
First Experiment in Sun-Synchronous Exploration
David Wettergreen, M Bernardine Dias, Benjamin Shamah, James Teza, Paul Tompkins, Christopher Urmson, Michael D. Wagner and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3501-3507, May, 2002
Mission Planning for the Sun-Synchronous Navigation Field Experiment
Paul Tompkins, Anthony (Tony) Stentz and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, May, 2002
Steering and Control of a Passively Articulated Robot
Benjamin Shamah, Michael D. Wagner, Stewart Moorehead, James Teza, David Wettergreen and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, SPIE, Sensor Fusion and Decentralized Control in Robotic Systems IV, Vol. 4571, October, 2001
A Sensor Arm for Robotic Antarctic Meteorite Search
Christopher Urmson, Benjamin Shamah, James Teza, Michael D. Wagner, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, July, 2001
A Multiple Information Source Planner for Autonomous Planetary Exploration
Stewart Moorehead, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space (i-SAIRAS), June, 2001
Automated Surface Mission Planning Considering Terrain, Shadows, Resources and Time
Paul Tompkins, Anthony (Tony) Stentz and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space (i-SAIRAS '01), Montreal, Canada., June, 2001
MMW-Scanning Radar for Descent Guidance and Landing Safeguard
Alex Foessel and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings 6th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, June, 2001
Robotic Planetary Exploration by Sun-Synchronous Navigation
David Wettergreen, Benjamin Shamah, Paul Tompkins and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space (i-SAIRAS '01), June, 2001
Three-Dimensional Map Building with MMW Radar
Alex Foessel, John Bares and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, June, 2001
Autonomous Exploration Using Multiple Sources of Information
Stewart Moorehead, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, May, 2001
Autonomous Robotic Meteorite Identification in Antarctica
Liam Pedersen, Michael D. Wagner, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 4158-4165, May, 2001
Robotic Antarctic Meteorite Search: Outcomes
Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Liam Pedersen, Benjamin Shamah, Kimberly Shillcutt, Michael D. Wagner and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 4174-4179, May, 2001
Skyworker: a robot for assembly, inspection and maintenance of large scale orbital facilities
Peter Staritz, Sarjoun Skaff, Christopher Urmson and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA '01), Vol. 4, pp. 4180 - 4185, May, 2001
Solar Navigational Planning for Robotic Explorers
Kimberly Shillcutt and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 2, pp. 1421 - 1426, May, 2001
The Science Autonomy System of the Nomad Robot
Michael D. Wagner, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Kimberly Shillcutt, Benjamin Shamah, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1742-1749, May, 2001
Skyworker: Robotics for Space Assembly, Inspection and Maintenance
Sarjoun Skaff, Peter Staritz and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Space Studies Institute Conference, January, 2001
Technology and Field Demonstration of Robotic Search for Antarctic Meteorites
Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Michael D. Wagner, Benjamin Shamah, Liam Pedersen, Kimberly Shillcutt and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, International Journal of Robotics Research, December, 2000
EventScope: Amplifying Human Knowledge and Experience via Intelligent Robotic Systems and Information Interaction
Peter Coppin, Richard Pell, Michael D. Wagner, John R. Hayes, Junlei Li, Liza Hall, Karl Fischer, David Hirschfield and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, IEEE International Workshop on Robot-Human Interaction, Osaka, Japan, September 2000, September, 2000
Robotics for Assembly, Inspection, and Maintenance of Space Macrofacilities
William (Red) L. Whittaker, Christopher Urmson, Peter Staritz, Brett Kennedy and Rob Ambrose

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, AIAA Space 2000 Conference and Exposition, September, 2000
Sun-Synchronous Planetary Exploration
William (Red) L. Whittaker, George A. Kantor, Benjamin Shamah and David Wettergreen

Conference Paper, Carnegie Mellon University, AIAA Space 2000 Conference an Exposition, September, 2000
Evaluation of Computer Vision Algorithms for Autonomous Navigation in Polar Terrains
Nicolas Vandapel, Raja Chatila, Stewart Moorehead, Simon Lacroix, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, January, 2000
Effect of Tire Design and Steering Mode on Robotic Mobility in Barren Terrain
Benjamin Shamah, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Michael D. Wagner and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceeding of the International Conference on Field and Service Robots, pp. 287-292, August, 1999
Technology and Field Demonstration Results in the Robotic Search for Antarctic Meteorites
Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Michael Wagner and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, pp. 185-190, August, 1999
Technology and Field Demonstration Results in the Robotic Search for Antarctic Meteorites
Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Michael D. Wagner and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, pp. 185-190, August, 1999
Autonomous Navigation Field Results of a Planetary Analog Robot in Antarctica
Stewart Moorehead, Reid Simmons, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, June, 1999
Solar Power Expert for Remote Robotic Explorers
Kimberly Shillcutt and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, June, 1999
Patterned Search Planning and Testing for the Robotic Antarctic Meteorite Search
Kimberly Shillcutt, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, 1999 International Topical Meeting on Robotics and Remote Systems for the Nuclear Industry, April, 1999
Preliminary Results on the use of Stereo, Color Cameras and Laser Sensors in Antarctica
Nicolas Vandapel, Stewart Moorehead, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Raja Chatila and Raphael Murrieta-Cid

Conference Paper, International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, March, 1999
Radar sensor for an autonomous Antarctic explorer
Alex Foessel, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Proc. SPIE , Mobile Robots XIII and Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 3525, pp. 117-124, January, 1999
Robotic Rock Classification Using Visible Light Reflectance Spectroscopy: Preliminary results from the Robotic Antarctic Meteorite Search program
Liam Pedersen, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, William (Red) L. Whittaker, W. Cassidy, P. Lee and T. Roush

Conference Paper, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXX, January, 1999
Search for Meteorites at Martin Hills and Pirrit Hills, Antarctica
P. Lee, W. A. Cassidy, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, D. Bassi, L. Bravo, H. Cifuentes, Matthew Deans, Alex Foessel, Stewart Moorehead, Michael Parris, C. Puebla, Liam Pedersen, Mark Sibenac, F. Vald?, Nicolas Vandapel and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXX, January, 1999
Field Validation of Nomad’s Robotic Locomotion
Benjamin Shamah, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Eric Rollins and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society of Photo-Optical Engineering, Vol. 3525, pp. 214-222, November, 1998
Modular Optimization for Robotic Explorers
Kimberly Shillcutt and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Integrated Planning for Autonomous Agent Architectures, AAAI Fall Symposium, October, 1998
The Atacama Desert Trek: Outcomes
Deepak Bapna, Eric Rollins, John Murphy, Mark Maimone, William (Red) L. Whittaker and David Wettergreen

Conference Paper, Proceedings of ICRA 1998, Vol. 1, pp. 597 - 604, May, 1998
A Concept for Robotic Lunar South Pole Exploration
Matthew Deans, Stewart Moorehead, Benjamin Shamah, Kimberly Shillcutt and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference and Exposition on Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space (Space '98), pp. 333-339, April, 1998
Nomad: A Demonstration of the Transforming Chassis
Eric Rollins, J. Luntz, Alex Foessel, Benjamin Shamah and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 1998 Intelligent Components for Vehicles, March, 1998
Antenna Pointing for High Bandwidth Communications from Mobile Robots
Deepak Bapna, Eric Rollins, Alex Foessel and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of ICRA 1998, Vol. 4, pp. 3468 - 3473, January, 1998
Sensing and data classification for robotic meteorite search
Liam Pedersen, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Gretchen Benedix and Ted Roush

Conference Paper, January, 1998
An Innovative High Bandwidth Communication System for Mobile Robots
Deepak Bapna, James Teza, Eric Rollins and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, 27th International Conference on Environmental Systems, July, 1997
Atacama Desert Trek: A Planetary Analog Field Experiment
William (Red) L. Whittaker, Deepak Bapna, Mark Maimone and Eric Rollins

Conference Paper, i-SAIRAS'97, July, 1997
Earth-Moon Communication from a Moving Lunar Rover
Deepak Bapna, Martin C. Martin and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 42nd International Instrumentation Symposium, pp. 613-622, May, 1996
Technology and Demonstrations for a Lunar Rover Expedition
Lalitesh Katragadda, John Murphy, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Deepak Bapna and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, 1996 SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, January, 1996
An Edutainment Based Lunar Mission and Related Spectrum Issues
Deepak Bapna and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Miscellaneous, Space Frequency Coordination Group Meeting, December, 1995
A Prototype Locomotion Concept for a Lunar Robotic Explorer
Y Fuke, Dimitrios (Dimi) Apostolopoulos, Eric Rollins, Jack Silberman and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, 1995 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Vehicles, pp. 382 - 387, September, 1995
Ambler: Performance of a Six-Legged Planetary Rover
Eric Krotkov, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Acta Astonautica, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 75-81, January, 1995
Experience with Rover Navigation for Lunar-Like Terrains
Reid Simmons, Eric Krotkov, Lonnie Chrisman, Fabio Cozman, Richard Goodwin, Martial Hebert, Lalitesh Katragadda, Sven Koenig, G. Krishnaswamy, Y. Shinoda, William (Red) L. Whittaker and P. Klarer

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 1995 Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS '95), pp. 441 - 446, January, 1995
Mixed-Mode Control of Navigation for a Lunar Rover
Reid Simmons, Eric Krotkov, L. Chrisman, Fabio Cozman, R. Goodwin, Martial Hebert, G. Heredia, S. Koenig, Pat Muir, Y. Shinoda and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the SSI/Princeton Space Manufacturing Conference, January, 1995
Direct Communication from a Lunar Rover to Earth Enabled by Precision Pointing
Deepak Bapna, William (Red) L. Whittaker and N. Colella

Conference Paper, International Lunar Exploration Conference, November, 1994
Three Mobile Robots For Space Context
William (Red) L. Whittaker, John Bares, Kevin Dowling and L. Kattragadda

Conference Paper, AIAA/NASA Conference on Intelligent Robots in Field, Factory, Service and Space (CIRFFSS '94) Conference, March, 1994
Lunar Rover Technology Demonstrations with Dante and Ratler
Eric Krotkov, John Bares, Lalitesh Katragadda, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Automation for Space, January, 1994
Autonomous Walking Results with the Ambler Hexapod Planetary Rover
Eric Krotkov, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, International Conference of Intelligent Autonomous Systems, pp. 46 - 53, January, 1993
Exploring Mount Erebus by Walking Robot
David Wettergreen, Chuck Thorpe and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, International Conference of Intelligent Autonomous Systems, pp. pp72-81, January, 1993
Exploring Mount Erebus by Walking Robot
David Wettergreen, Chuck Thorpe and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, January, 1993
Position Estimator for Underground Mine Equipment
Gary Shaffer, Anthony (Tony) Stentz, William (Red) L. Whittaker and Kerien Fitzpatrick

Journal Article, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 1131 - 1140, September, 1992
A walking prescription for statically-stable walkers based on walker/terrain interaction
P.V. Nagy, William (Red) L. Whittaker and S. Desa

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA '92), Vol. 1, pp. 149 - 156, May, 1992
1991 Year End Report Autonomous Planetary Rover
Eric Krotkov, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-92-02, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, February, 1992
A Telerobotic Solution for Tool Insertion Tasks in Nuclear Servicing
R. Craig Coulter, Anthony (Tony) Stentz, P. Keller and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Remote Systems Session of the ANS Winter Meeting, November, 1991
1990 Year End Report. Autonomous Planetary Rover at Carnegie Mellon
William (Red) L. Whittaker, Takeo Kanade and Tom Mitchell

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-91-19, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, August, 1991
An Application of Tool Insertion Using Model Based Vision
R. Craig Coulter, Anthony (Tony) Stentz, P. Keller and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems Engineering, pp. 316 - 319, August, 1991
Leveling of the AMBLER Walking Machine: A Comparison of Methods
Pablo Gonzalez de Santos, Peter V. Nagy and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-91-13, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, July, 1991
Ambler: a six-legged planetary rover
Eric Krotkov, John Bares, Takeo Kanade, Tom Mitchell, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Fifth International Conference on Advanced Robotics, 1991, Robots in Unstructured Environments (ICAR '91), Vol. 1, pp. 717 - 722, June, 1991
A System for Telerobotic Control of Servicing Tasks in a Nuclear Steam Generator
R. Craig Coulter, Anthony (Tony) Stentz, Paul G. Keller, Gary K. Shaffer, William (Red) L. Whittaker, Barry Brummit and William Burky

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-90-24, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 1990
Japan robotics aim for unmanned space exploration
William (Red) L. Whittaker and Takeo Kanade

Journal Article, IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 27, No. 12, pp. 64 - 67, December, 1990
Assessment of joint driving configurations for body propulsion of an orthogonal legged walker
D.J. Manko and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, IEEE International Conference on Systems Engineering, pp. 204 - 207, August, 1990
Position Estimator for Robotic Mine Equipment
Gary Shaffer, Anthony (Tony) Stentz, William (Red) L. Whittaker and Kerien Fitzpatrick

Conference Paper, Proceedings of Tenth WVU International Mining Electrotechnology Conference, July, 1990
Walking robot with a circulating gait
John Bares and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 1990 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Towards a New Frontier of Applications (IROS '90), Vol. 2, pp. 809 - 816, July, 1990
1989 Year End Report: Autonomous Planetary Rover at Carnegie Mellon
William (Red) L. Whittaker, Takeo Kanade and Tom Mitchell

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-90-04, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, February, 1990
Development of an Integrated Mobile Robot System at Carnegie Mellon University: December 1989 Final Report
Steven Shafer and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-90-12, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, January, 1990
Motion control for a novel legged robot
Peter V. Nagy and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 1989 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, September, 1989
Development of an Integrated Mobile Robot System at CMU: June 1988 Annual Report
Steven Shafer and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-89-22, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, July, 1989
Ambler: An Autonomous Rover for Planetary Exploration
John Bares, Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, Eric Krotkov, Tom Mitchell, Reid Simmons and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Journal Article, IEEE Computer, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 18-26, June, 1989
1988 Year End Report: Autonomous Planetary Rover at CMU
Takeo Kanade, Tom Mitchell and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-89-03, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, January, 1989
NAVLAB: An Autonomous Navigation Testbed
Kevin Dowling, R. Guzikowski, J. Ladd, Henning Pangels, Sanjiv Singh and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-87-24, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, November, 1987
June 1987 Annual Report: Development of an Integrated Mobile Robot System at Carnegie Mellon
Steven Shafer and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-88-10, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, July, 1987
Autonomous Land Vehicle Project at CMU
Takeo Kanade, Chuck Thorpe and William (Red) L. Whittaker

Conference Paper, Proc. 1986 ACM Computer Conference, February, 1986
First Results in Robot Road-Following
R. Wallace, Anthony (Tony) Stentz, Chuck Thorpe, Hans Moravec, William (Red) L. Whittaker and Takeo Kanade

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, January, 1985
Mailing Address:

Carnegie Mellon University
Robotics Institute
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

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