/Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Portrait of Joseph Andrew Giampapa
Technical Program Manager
Office: NREC 281
Phone: (412) 681-2358
Personal Homepage
Associated Center: NREC

Mailing Address

My research interests can be characterized in the following areas:

  • Human-agent-robot teamwork
  • Development of quantifiable assurance techniques of individual and group autonomous behaviors
  • Development of innovative applications of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems

In human-agent-robot teamwork, humans interact with autonomous software and physical robots whose capabilities may be extended by ad hoc collaborations with other autonomous and physical robots. One of the ways I am pursuing this is by investigating natural language understanding (NLU) and generation (NLG) techniques that enable autonomous systems to:

  • Understand human intent
  • Engage humans
  • Form and maintain trusted service level agreements with humans, and
  • Be predictable, reliable and trusted collaborators with humans and other autonomous systems.

Quantifiable Assurance Techniques for Individual and Multi-Robot Systems: Assurance, in general, is the argument that one makes to set and manage expectations. In the systems engineering community, it is also sometimes known as testing and evaluation (T&E) and validation and verification (V&V). Quantifiable assurance of autonomous robotic systems allows customers and systems engineers to answer questions such as:

  • How many robots are needed for a mission?
  • What is the effectiveness of a robot in a team role?
  • What are the energy or other resource requirements of a group of robots for performing a given mission?
  • What is the effect of a coordination algorithm on a team for a given mission?

I also participate in more applied and systems-engineering forms of research. Autonomous agents and multi-agent systems are powerful tools applied to systems engineering research involving cyber-physical (CPS), socio-technical, systems of systems (SoS), and ultra-large-scale (ULS) systems. Some topic areas I have investigated:

  • Power grid resilience to cyber attack
  • Integrating renewable but intermittent energy in co-generation power grids
  • Corporate and public policy evaluation by simulation
  • Enterprise-level information management: privacy, need to know access control, document routing, etc.

Program Committee Member and/or Reviewer for numerous academic journals, conferences, workshops, symposia and book proposals.

  • Artificial Intelligence and the Web (AIWeb), a technical conference track of AAAI, 2007
  • Conference on Human Factors and Computational Models in Negotiation (HuCom) 2010, HuCom journal 2010
  • Elsevier Science of Computer Programming (SCP) journal, 2008 – 2009
  • European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI) 2002
  • European Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (ECCBR) Workshop on Mixed-Initiative Case-Based Reasoning (MICBR) 2002
  • European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC) 2007
  • International Conference on Adaptive and Self-Adaptive Systems and Applications (ADAPTIVE) 2012 – present
  • International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART) 2009 – present
  • International Conference on Ambient Computing, Applications, Services and Technologies (AMBIENT) 2012 – present
  • International Conference on Autonomous Agents Conferences (Agents) 2000 – 2001
  • International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS) 2002 – present
  • International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (ICCBR) 2003
  • International Conference on Computational Intelligence (CI) 2005 – present
  • International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Infrastructures (WETICE) track on Collaborative Modeling and Simulation (CoMETS) 2012 – present
  • International Conference on Design and Modeling in Science, Education, and Technology (DeMSET) 2012 – present
  • International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Applications (ICTA) 2011 – present
  • International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology (IAT) 2003 – present, Vice Chair 2007
  • International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Applications (INTELLI) 2012 – present
  • International Conference on Logistics, Informatics and Service Science (LISS) 2012 – present
  • International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PERCOM) 2003
  • International Conference on Pervasive Patterns and Applications (PATTERNS) 2012 – present
  • International Conference on Principles of Practice in Multi-Agent Systems (PRIMA) 2009 – 2011
  • International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC) 2007 – 2009
  • International Conference on Web Services (ICWS) 2006
  • International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) 2003
  • International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Workshop on Representation, Reasoning, and Learning in Computer Games, 2005
  • International Journal of Production Economics (IJPE) Special Issue on Robust Supply Chains under Uncertainty, 2009
  • International Journal of Semantic Computing (IJSC), 2008 – 2009
  • International Journal of Web Intelligence and Agent Systems (JWIAS), Journal of the Web Intelligence Consortium (WIC) 2009 – 2010
  • International Journal on Simulation Systems Science and Technology (IJSSST) 2006 – 2007
  • International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC) 2010 – present
  • International Mulit-Conference on Computing in the Global Information Technology (ICCGI) 2012 – present
  • International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2012 (DCAI) 2012 – present
  • International Workshop on Multi-Agent Robotic Systems (MARS) 2006
  • International Workshop on Multi-Agent-Based Simulation (MABS) 2010 – 2011, post proceedings reviewer, 2010
  • International Workshop on Software Patterns: Addressing Challenges (SPAC) 2007
  • Internationla Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS) 2004 – present
  • Internet Computing (IC) magazine, 2007
  • Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS) 2001
  • Knowledge Communication and Peer Reviewing (KCPR) 2006
  • Oxford University Press, New York, book proposal reviewer, 2003
  • RoboCup Symposium, 2001, 2005
  • Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems (SELMAS) 2003 – 2005
  • Special Interest Group on Computer Human Interaction (CHI), 2008
  • Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC) 2010
  • Symposium on Agent Based Modeling and Simulation (ABModSim-4) 2012 – present
  • Workshop on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems for Enterprise Integration (ZOCO) 2012 – present
  • Workshop on Cognitive Modeling of Agents and Multi-Agent Interactions (CMAMAI) 2003
  • Workshop on Collaborative Modeling and Simulation (CoMetS) 2010 – 2011
  • World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and informatics (WMSCI) 2003 – present

Research Grant Proposal Reviewer
Grant Proposal Reviewer for scientific and commercial research and development (R&D) grand proposals that are sponsored by federal, state, and foreign governments.

  • International Institute of Informatics and Systemics (IIIS), 2008
  • State of Kentucky Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) program, 2007
  • State of Michigan 21st Century Jobs Fund Competition, 2006
  • United States Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) First Steps to Market Grants Program, 2004
  • Dutch National Science Foundation (NWO) Computer Science Open Competition, 2003
Displaying 62 Publications
Accessible Transportation Technologies Research Initiative (ATTRI): Assessment of Relevant Research
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Aaron Steinfeld, Ermine Teves, M. Bernardine Dias and Zachary Rubinstein

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-17-17, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 2017
Accessible Transportation Technologies Research Initiative (ATTRI): Innovation Scan
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Aaron Steinfeld, Ermine Teves, M. Bernardine Dias and Zachary Rubinstein

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-17-16, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 2017
Accessible Transportation Technologies Research Initiative (ATTRI): State of the Practice Scan
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Aaron Steinfeld, Ermine Teves, M. Bernardine Dias and Zachary Rubinstein

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-17-15, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 2017
Optimizing Robotic Team Performance with Probabilistic Model Checking
Sagar Chaki, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, David Kyle and John P. Lehoczky

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots (SIMPAR 2014), Vol. 8810, October, 2014
A Reliability Analysis Technique for Estimating Sequentially Coordinated Multirobot Mission Performance
John Porter, Kawa Cheung, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and John M. Dolan

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems (PRIMA), Springer Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 28, pp. 276-291, December, 2013
Toward A Quantitative Method for Assuring Coordinated Autonomy
Sagar Chaki, John M. Dolan and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-13-12, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, June, 2013
Toward a Quantitative Method for Assuring Coordinated Autonomy
Sagar Chaki, John M. Dolan and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the AAMAS 2013 Workshop on Autonomous Robots and Multirobot Systems (ARMS), May, 2013
Probabilistic Verification of Coordinated Multi-Robot Missions
Sagar Chaki and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Book Section/Chapter, Model Checking Software, Vol. 7976, pp. 135-153, January, 2013
Vulnerability Assessment of AC State Estimation With Respect to False Data Injection Cyber-Attacks
Gabriela Hug, Member and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Conference Paper, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1362-1370, September, 2012
Edge Enabled Systems
Zacharie Hall, Rick Kazman, Daniel Plakosh, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Kurt Wallau

Conference Paper, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA) - SOLUTIONS Series George Mason University Symposium on Critical Issues in C4I, May, 2010
An Overview of Distributed Constraint Satisfaction and Optimization
Andres Diaz Pace, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Mark Klein and John Goodenough

Miscellaneous, Carnegie Mellon University, Presentation, pp. 85, March, 2010
Agent Support for Policy-driven Collaborative Mission Planning
Katia Sycara, Timothy J. Norman, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Martin Kollingbaum, Christopher Burnett, Daniele Masato, Mairi McCallum and Michael H. Strub

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, The Computer Journal, August, 2009
Agent Support for Policy-driven Collaborative Planning in Ad-hoc Teams
Martin Kollingbaum, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara and Timothy Norman

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the ITA (ACITA 2009), August, 2009
Automated Aiding Strategies for Decentralized Planning with Interdependent Policies
Martin Kollingbaum, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara, Timothy J. Norman, Christopher Burnett and Daniele Masato

Conference Paper, Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2009), May, 2009
Communications for Agent-based Human Team Support
Gita Sukthankar, Katia Sycara, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Christopher Burnett

Book Section/Chapter, Carnegie Mellon University, chapter in Organizations in Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 285-313, March, 2009
An Integrated Approach to High-Level Information Fusion
Katia Sycara, Robin Glinton, Bin Yu, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Sean R. Owens and LTC Charles Grindle

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, Information Fusion, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 25-50, January, 2009
Toward Identifying Process Models in Ad Hoc and Distributed Teams
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara and Gita Sukthankar

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the First International Working Conference on Human Factors and Computational Models in Negotiation (HuCom 2008), pp. 55-62, December, 2008
Agent Support for Mission Planning Under Policy Constraints
Christopher Burnett, Daniele Masato, Mairi McCallum, Timothy J. Norman, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Martin Kollingbaum and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the International Technology Alliance, September, 2008
A Model of Human Teamwork for Agent-Assisted Search Operations
Gita Sukthankar, Katia Sycara, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Christopher Burnett

Conference Paper, NATO Research and Technology Organisation: Human Factors and Medicine Panel Symposium (NATO HFM-142/RTO Symposium), April, 2008
Towards a Model of Agent-Assisted Team Search
Gita Sukthankar, Katia Sycara, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Christopher Burnett and Alun Preece

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Science, September, 2007
An Integrated Framework for High Level Information Fusion
Katia Sycara, Robin Glinton, Bin Yu, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Sean R. Owens and LTC Charles Grindle

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, International Journal of Information Fusion, April, 2007
A Markov Random Field Model of Context for High Level Information Fusion
Robin Glinton, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, International Conference on Information Fusion (Fusion 06), Florence, Italy, July, 2006
A Markov Random Field Model of Context for High-Level Information Fusion
Robin Glinton, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, The 9th International Conference on Information Fusion (Fusion 2006), International Society of Information Fusion, July, 2006
Bilateral Negotiation Decisions with Uncertain Dynamic Outside Options
Cuihong Li, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Special Issue on Game-theoretic Analysis and Stochastic Simulation of Negotiation Agents, Vol. 36, No. 1, January, 2006
An Agent-Based C4ISR Testbed
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara, Sean R. Owens, Robin Glinton, Young-Woo Seo, Bin Yu, Charles E. Grindle and Yang Xu

Conference Paper, Eighth International Conference on Information Fusion, Vol. 2, July, 2005
An Evidential Model of Multisensor Decision Fusion for Force Aggregation and Classification
Bin Yu, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Sean R. Owens and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, Eighth International Conference on Information Fusion, July, 2005
Intent Inference Using a Potential Field Model of Environmental Influences
Robin Glinton, Sean R. Owens, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara and Chuck Grindle

Conference Paper, Eighth International Conference on Information Fusion, July, 2005
Task Allocation in Teams for Launch and Range Operations
Katia Sycara, Paul Scerri, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Samvith Srinivas

Conference Paper, 12th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, July, 2005
Techniques and Directions for Building Very Large Agent Teams
Paul Scerri, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, 2005 International Conference on Integration of Knowledge Intensive Multi-Agent Systems, KIMAS'05: Modeling, Exploration, and Engineering, pp. 79-84, April, 2005
Modeling Multi-attribute Negotiations in the Navy Detailing Process
Guoming Lai, Cuihong Li, Katia Sycara and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-05-06, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, January, 2005
Extending the OneSAF Testbed into a C4ISR Testbed
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara, Sean R. Owens, Robin Glinton, Young-Woo Seo, Bin Yu and Charles E. Grindle

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, SIMULATION: Special Issue on Military Simulation Systems and Command and Control Systems Interoperability, Vol. 80, No. 12, December, 2004
Literature Review on Multi-attribute Negotiations
Guoming Lai, Cuihong Li, Katia Sycara and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-04-66, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 2004
Installation, Running and Editing Instructions for the ClassificationBox Text Classification Tool
Michael Rectenwald, Young-Woo Seo, Kevin Lee, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-04-58, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, November, 2004
Proof of Concept System for Automatically Determining `Need-to-Know’ Access Privileges: Installation Notes and User Guide
Michael Rectenwald, Kevin Lee, Young-Woo Seo, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-04-56, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, October, 2004
Automating Terrain Analysis: Algorithms for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
Charles Grindle, Robin Glinton, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Sean R. Owens and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 48th Annual Meeting, pp. 533-537, September, 2004
A Multi-Agent System for Automatically Resolving Network Interoperability Problems
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara, Austin Fath, Aaron Steinfeld and Daniel Siewiorek

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (AAMAS 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1462-1463, July, 2004
A Multi-Agent System for Enforcing “Need-To-Know” Security Policies
Young-Woo Seo, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, Sixth International Bi-Conference Workshop on Agent-Oriented Information Systems (AOIS-2004), July, 2004
Bilateral Negotiation Decisions with Uncertain Dynamic Outside Options
Cuihong Li, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, The First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic Contracting, pp. 54-61, July, 2004
Bilateral Negotiation Decisions with Uncertain Dynamic Outside Options
Cuihong Li, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic Contracting, pp. 54--61, July, 2004
Terrain-Based Information Fusion and Inference
Robin Glinton, Sean R. Owens, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara, Charles E. Grindle and C. Michael Lewis

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information Fusion, July, 2004
Uncertain Information Fusion for Force Aggregation and Classification in Airborne Sensor Networks
Bin Yu, Katia Sycara, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Sean R. Owens

Conference Paper, AAAI-04 Workshop on Sensor Networks, July, 2004
Integrating Context for Information Fusion: Automating Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
Robin Glinton, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Sean R. Owens, Katia Sycara, Charles E. Grindle and C. Michael Lewis

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Human Performance, Situation Awareness, and Automation Technology, March, 2004
Financial News Analysis for Intelligent Portfolio Management
Young-Woo Seo, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-04-04, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, January, 2004
A Solution for Bilateral Negotiations in the Navy Detailing Process
Cuihong Li, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-48, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 2003
Decentralized Matching Schemes for the Navy Detailing Process
Wei Yang, Katia Sycara and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-51, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 2003
RETSINA Agent Name Service Documentation
Michael Rectenwald, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Brent K. Langley and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-11, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 2003
A Review of Research Literature on Bilateral Negotiations
Cuihong Li, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-41, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, November, 2003
Modelling Bilateral Negotiations in the Navy Detailing Process
Cuihong Li, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-47, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, November, 2003
Two-Sided Matching for the U.S. Navy Detailing Process with Market Complication
Wei Yang, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-49, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, November, 2003
Evaluation Criteria for the MORSE Simulation Environment
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Sandra L. Esch, Bonnie E. John, Rahul Singh and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-38, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, October, 2003
User Guide for MORSE Command Simulation: Setup and Running Instructions
Michael Rectenwald, Rahul Singh, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Katia Sycara, Sandra Esch and Bonnie John

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-40, Robotics Institute / Human Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, October, 2003
User Guide for MORSEStation Range Operations Simulation
Michael Rectenwald, Rahul Singh, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Sandy Sesch, Katia Sycara and Bonnie John

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-03-37, Robotics Institute / Human Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, October, 2003
An Examination of Remote Access Help Desk Cases
Aaron Steinfeld, Ritika Sanghi, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Daniel Siewiorek and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-CS-03-190, Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University, September, 2003
Effective Coordination of Multiple Intelligent Agents for Command and Control
Katia Sycara, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Michael Rectenwald

Tech. Report, AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-218, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Final Technical Report, September, 2003
The RETSINA MAS Infrastructure
Katia Sycara, Massimo Paolucci, Martin Van Velsen and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Vol. 7, No. 2-Jan, pp. 29-48, July, 2003
The RETSINA MAS, a Case Study
Katia Sycara, Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Brent K. Langley and Massimo Paolucci

Book Section/Chapter, Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems: Research Issues and Practical Applications, Vol. LNCS 2603, pp. 232-250, July, 2003
Team-Oriented Agent Coordination in the RETSINA Multi-Agent System
Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-02-34, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 2002
Text Classification for Intelligent Portfolio Management
Young-Woo Seo, Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-02-14, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, May, 2002
Conversational Case-Based Planning for Agent Team Coordination
Joseph Andrew Giampapa and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, ICCBR 2001, Vol. 2080, pp. 189-203, July, 2001
Configuration Management for Multi-Agent Systems
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Octavio H. Juarez-Espinosa and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, The 5th International Conference on Autonomous Agents (Agents 2001), pp. 230-231, June, 2001
The RETSINA MAS Infrastructure
Katia Sycara, Massimo Paolucci, Martin Van Velsen and Joseph Andrew Giampapa

Tech. Report, CMU-RI-TR-01-05, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, March, 2001
Agent Interoperation Across Multagent System Boundaries
Joseph Andrew Giampapa, Massimo Paolucci and Katia Sycara

Conference Paper, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Autonomous Agents (Agents 2000), June, 2000
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