/Generic vs. person specific active appearance models

Generic vs. person specific active appearance models

Ralph Gross, Iain Matthews and Simon Baker
Journal Article, Carnegie Mellon University, Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 1080-1093, November, 2005

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Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are generative parametric models that have been successfully used in the past to model faces. Anecdotal evidence, however, suggests that the performance of an AAM built to model the variation in appearance of a single person across pose, illumination, and expression (a Person Specific AAM) is substantially better than the performance of an AAM built to model the variation in appearance of many faces, including unseen subjects not in the training set (a Generic AAM). In this paper we present an empirical evaluation that shows that Person Specific AAMs are, as expected, both easier to build and more robust to fit than Generic AAMs. Moreover, we show that: (1) building a generic shape model is far easier than building a generic appearance model, and (2)~the shape component is the main cause of the reduced fitting robustness of Generic AAMs. We then proceed to describe two refinements to Generic AAMs to improve their performance: (1) a refitting procedure to improve the quality of the ground-truth data used to build the AAM and (2) a new fitting algorithm. For both refinements we demonstrate dramatically improved fitting performance. Finally, we evaluate the effect of these improvements on a combined model construction and fitting task.

BibTeX Reference
author = {Ralph Gross and Iain Matthews and Simon Baker},
title = {Generic vs. person specific active appearance models},
journal = {Image and Vision Computing},
year = {2005},
month = {November},
volume = {23},
number = {11},
pages = {1080-1093},