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RI SEMINAR -- Stephane Lavallee


The T.I.M.C. laboratory which is affiliated with both the Grenoble Hospital and the Institute of Applied Mathematics of Grenoble (IMAG) has been directing a project in Computer & Robot Assisted Surgery since 1985. The idea is to help surgeons use multimodal data in order to plan and execute interventions. The aim is to make operations more reliable more efficient and faster, to optimize surgical techniques using post-operative data, and to enable new surgical procedures. This emerging discipline strongly relies on a partnership between technologists and surgeons.

Many clinical applications use the same basic idea, which is "Image-guided surgery". Our group has been developing a methodology associated with that concept, which relies on four steps:

  1. Data acquisition and modelling Multi-modal data (mainly medical images) must be acquired and calibrated. Interactive or automated processing of data (mainly segmentation) then produces high-level descriptions of anatomical structures.
  2. Registration All of the available data must be registered in order to build a complete patient model, and to provide virtual links between the pre-operative information and the physical space of the surgical room.
  3. Surgical planning The surgeon interactively defines a surgical procedure on the available data. Optimization tools are required in some cases to help the surgeon with this task.
  4. Action Guiding systems help the surgeon execute the planned surgical strategy. These systems can be passive (e.g., optical localizers), semi-active (e.g., mechanical positioning systems) or active (e.g., robots), depending on the level of autonomy that must be left to the surgeon and on safety considerations. The concept of Padyc (Passive Arm with DYnamic Constraints) will be presented.

These four steps will be illustrated with several clinical applications: SPECT/MRI image registration, stereotactic neurosurgery with a positioning robot used for more than 1000 interventions, spine surgery (insertion of screws inside pedicles), knee surgery (optimization of anterior cruciate ligament placement), dentistry (CT-based implant positioning), radiotherapy (accurate repositioning of the patient relative to the irradiation system for prostate cancer), cranio-facial surgery, navigation in retroperitoneoscopy.

Host:           Yangsheng Xu (xu+@cs.cmu.edu)
Appointment:    Ava Cruse (avac@cs.cmu.edu)

Christopher Lee | chrislee@ri.cmu.edu
Last modified: Wed Oct 12 12:23:15 1994