Using Spatial and Temporal Contrast for Fluent Robot-Human Hand-overs

Maya Cakmak, Siddhartha Srinivasa, Min Kyung Lee, Sara Kiesler, and Jodi Forlizzi
6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, February, 2011.


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Abstract
For robots to get integrated in daily tasks assisting humans, robot-human interactions will need to reach a level of fluency close to that of human-human interactions. In this paper we address the fluency of robot-human hand-overs. From an observational study with our robot HERB, we identify the key problems with a baseline hand-over action. We find that the failure to convey the intention of handing over causes delays in the transfer, while the lack of an intuitive signal to indicate timing of the hand-over causes early, unsuccessful attempts to take the object. We propose to address these problems with the use of spatial contrast, in the form of distinct hand-over poses, and temporal contrast, in the form of unambiguous transitions to the hand-over pose. We conduct a survey to identify distinct hand-over poses, and determine variables of the pose that have most communicative potential for the intent of handing over. We present an experiment that analyzes the effect of the two types of contrast on the fluency of hand-overs. We find that temporal contrast is particularly useful in improving fluency by eliminating early attempts of the human.

Notes
Number of pages: 8

Text Reference
Maya Cakmak, Siddhartha Srinivasa, Min Kyung Lee, Sara Kiesler, and Jodi Forlizzi, "Using Spatial and Temporal Contrast for Fluent Robot-Human Hand-overs," 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, February, 2011.

BibTeX Reference
@inproceedings{Srinivasa_2011_6793,
   author = "Maya Cakmak and Siddhartha Srinivasa and Min Kyung Lee and Sara Kiesler and Jodi Forlizzi",
   title = "Using Spatial and Temporal Contrast for Fluent Robot-Human Hand-overs",
   booktitle = "6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction",
   month = "February",
   year = "2011",
}