Active Appearance Models with Occlusion

Ralph Gross, Iain Matthews, and Simon Baker
Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2006, pp. 593-604.


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Abstract
Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are generative parametric models that have been successfully used in the past to track faces in video. A variety of video applications are possible, including dynamic head pose and gaze estimation for real-time user interfaces, lip-reading, and expression recognition. To construct an AAM, a number of training images of faces with a mesh of canonical feature points (usually hand-marked) are needed. All feature points have to be visible in all training images. However, in many scenarios parts of the face may be occluded. Perhaps the most common cause of occlusion is 3D pose variation, which can cause self-occlusion of the face. Furthermore, tracking using standard AAM fitting algorithms often fails in the presence of even small occlusions. In this paper we propose algorithms to construct AAMs from occluded training images and to track faces efficiently in videos containing occlusion. We evaluate our algorithms both quantitatively and qualitatively and show successful real-time face tracking on a number of image sequences containing varying degrees and types of occlusions.

Notes
Sponsor: ONR/DoD
Grant ID: N00014-00-1-0915/N41756-03-C4024
Associated Center(s) / Consortia: Vision and Autonomous Systems Center
Associated Lab(s) / Group(s): Vision for Safe Driving, People Image Analysis Consortium, Face Group
Associated Project(s): AAMs with Occlusion and AAM Fitting Algorithms
Number of pages: 28

Text Reference
Ralph Gross, Iain Matthews, and Simon Baker, "Active Appearance Models with Occlusion," Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2006, pp. 593-604.

BibTeX Reference
@article{Gross_2006_5483,
   author = "Ralph Gross and Iain Matthews and Simon Baker",
   title = "Active Appearance Models with Occlusion",
   journal = "Image and Vision Computing",
   pages = "593-604",
   publisher = "Elsevier",
   year = "2006",
   volume = "24",
   number = "6",
}