Individual differences in facial expression: Stability over time, relation to self-reported emotion, and ability to inform person identification

Jeffrey Cohn, Karen Schmidt, Ralph Gross, and P. Ekman
Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal User Interfaces, October, 2002.


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Abstract
The face can communicate varied personal information including subjective emotion, communicative intent, and cognitive appraisal. Accurate interpretation by observer or computer interface depends on attention to dynamic properties of the expression, context, and knowledge of what is normative for a given individual. In two separate studies, we investigated individual differences in the base rate of positive facial expression and in specific facial action units over intervals from 4- to 12 months. Facial expression was measured using convergent measures, including facial EMG, automatic feature-point tracking, and manual FACS coding. Individual differences in facial expression were stable over time, comparable in magnitude to stability of self-reported emotion, and sufficiently strong that individuals were recognized on the basis of their facial behavior alone at rates comparable to that for a commercial face recognition system (FaceIt from Identix). Facial action units convey unique information about person identity that can inform interpretation of psychological states, person recognition, and design of individuated avatars.

Keywords
Facial Expression, Individual Differences, Face Recognition

Notes
Associated Center(s) / Consortia: Vision and Autonomous Systems Center
Associated Lab(s) / Group(s): Face Group and Component Analysis
Associated Project(s): Facial Expression Analysis
Number of pages: 6

Text Reference
Jeffrey Cohn, Karen Schmidt, Ralph Gross, and P. Ekman, "Individual differences in facial expression: Stability over time, relation to self-reported emotion, and ability to inform person identification," Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal User Interfaces, October, 2002.

BibTeX Reference
@inproceedings{Cohn_2002_4505,
   author = "Jeffrey Cohn and Karen Schmidt and Ralph Gross and P. Ekman",
   title = "Individual differences in facial expression: Stability over time, relation to self-reported emotion, and ability to inform person identification",
   booktitle = "Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal User Interfaces",
   month = "October",
   year = "2002",
}