The Anchors Hierarchy: Using the triangle inequality to survive high dimensional data

Andrew Moore
tech. report CMU-RI-TR-00-05, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, February, 2000


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Abstract
This paper is about the use of metric data structures in high-dimensional or non-Euclidean space to permit cached sufficient statistics accelerations of learning algorithms.

It has recently been shown that for less than about 10 dimensions, decorating kd-trees with additional "cached sufficient statistics" such as first and second moments and contingency tables can provide satisfying acceleration for a very wide range of statistical learning tasks such as kernel regression, locally weighted regression, k-means clustering, mixture modeling and Bayes Net learning.

In this paper, we begin by defining the anchors hierarchy---a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based only on a triangle-inequality-obeying distance metric. We show how this, in its own right, gives a fast and effective clustering of data. But more importantly we show how it can produce a well-balanced structure similar to a Ball-Tree (Omohundro 1990) or a kind of metric tree (Uhlmann 1991)in a way that is neither "top-down'' nor "bottom-up'' but instead "middle-out". We then show how this structure, decorated with cached sufficient statistics, allows a wide variety of statistical learning algorithms to be accelerated even in thousands of dimensions.


Notes

Text Reference
Andrew Moore, "The Anchors Hierarchy: Using the triangle inequality to survive high dimensional data," tech. report CMU-RI-TR-00-05, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, February, 2000

BibTeX Reference
@techreport{Moore_2000_4181,
   author = "Andrew Moore",
   title = "The Anchors Hierarchy: Using the triangle inequality to survive high dimensional data",
   booktitle = "",
   institution = "Robotics Institute",
   month = "February",
   year = "2000",
   number= "CMU-RI-TR-00-05",
   address= "Pittsburgh, PA",
}